National Moderator's Report

Mar 2019

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Download PDF: Accounting National Moderator's Report 2019 (PDF, 26KB)

The following report gives feedback to assist assessors with general issues and trends that have been identified during external moderation of the internal Accounting standards in 2018.

It does not clarify specific standards but provides further insights from moderation material viewed throughout the year.


Volume of Evidence Produced

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Some students produce an excessive volume of evidence. Students are not required to submit evidence beyond the criteria of the standard. It is appropriate for teachers to guide students to produce succinct evidence in response to the achievement criteria of the standard.

This has been particularly evident in 91407, ‘Interpret an Annual Report’ at Level 3. Students who produced concise and succinct responses achieved higher grades. Learners’ interpretations of the performance, position and liquidity status of entities do not need to include explanations of every analysis measure. It is suggested that assessors give learners page or word-length guidelines for the report.

Excellence at Level 3

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There is some inconsistency in awarding Excellence. When making assessor decisions regarding Excellence, consideration needs to be given to the overall quality of the evidence. This is critical when making a judgement at the Merit/Excellence boundary.

A significant proportion of moderation grade changes occurred at the Merit/Excellence boundary for the three Level 3 internal standards.

For 91407, ‘Interpret an Annual Report’, students at Excellence show sustained evidence of comprehensively linking recommendations to the specific needs of the external user, such as a potential investor or a potential employee. These students referred to wider economic activities, such as those found in media reports.

In the subsystems standards, 91405 and 91409, students who reached Excellence justified subsystem elements in the context of the entities’ ability to continue operations. This justification is best evidenced by referring to the consequences on ongoing operations of having or not having the subsystem elements.

Group Work

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Group work is an acceptable form of assessment, if appropriate to the standard. When submitting group work for moderation, the teacher needs to ensure there is evidence that each student has met the standard.

The contribution of each student can be tracked and presented in a variety of ways, such as written record of teacher observation, the division of workload into clearly defined tasks, a student worklog or video diary, recordings of teacher/student conferences, etc.

Integrated Assessment of Standards

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This refers to assessing multiple standards via one submission of student evidence. The assessment of standards may be integrated either within a subject or across subjects.

For external moderation, if the assessment is across subjects and the student evidence is physical, it can be sent on to the next subject moderator/s if required. If it is an online submission, the student evidence can be uploaded for each standard being moderated.

Engaging with Evidence

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Except for the processing-only standards, 90977 and 91175, other internal standards require learners to also produce a narrative/report. Tasks for these may include a case study, such as TKI’s ‘Argos Model Supplies’ for 91386.

Generally, learners who achieved higher grades engaged with authentic businesses through visits or online collaborative tools such as Skype. Interviews should be recorded to allow students to review responses in their own time. Where an authentic business is used as the focus, the assessor needs to provide learners with some fictitious transactions to satisfy the processing aspect of the standard.

Resubmissions/Verbal Evidence

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All evidence to support the grade awarded should be submitted for moderation. When a grade has been supported by an interview, this should be either captured as detailed teacher notes or a recording should be made.

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