National Moderator's Reports

February 2023

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Download PDF: Home Economics National Moderator's Report 2023 (PDF, 181KB)

The following report gives feedback to assist assessors with general issues and trends that have been identified during external moderation of the internally assessed standards in 2022. It also provides further insights from moderation material viewed throughout the year and outlines the Assessor Support available for Home Economics.



91466: Investigate a nutritional issue affecting the well-being of New Zealand society

Investigating a nutritional issue involves explaining the nature of the issue for this standard. This includes why it is an issue, how the issue has transpired, who it affects and the implications of the issue for the well-being of New Zealand society.

An explanation of relevant trends and patterns (e.g. development over time) related to the issue is expected, in order to enable the significant contributing factors (attitudes and determinants) to be identified and their influence explained.

The standard requires that the chosen nutritional issue be a health-related situation that affects individual and societal well-being, rather than a complex lifestyle disease such as obesity. For example, poor breakfast choices or lack of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Where it is relevant, obesity should be explored as an outcome of the nutritional issue with current information, and data related to it. This should be used to explain the effects of the nutritional issue on the well-being of individuals, and the implications of this for societal well-being.

Both qualitative and quantitative information is required to explain the nutritional issue, the trends/patterns and the effects on well-being. Supporting evidence should mostly be current, and demonstrate that the chosen nutritional issue is significant for New Zealand society.

Evidence that met the requirements of the standard focused on investigating a nutritional issue that was a health-related situation and not a lifestyle disease. For example, investigating the overconsumption of ultra-processed food, rather than obesity. In samples where the investigation was focused on examining a lifestyle disease, students did not achieve the standard.

Where explanations of the factors (personal and societal) relating to the issue focused on the most significant contributing factors, students were more likely to achieve the standard, and the quantity of evidence presented was less likely to exceed expectations.

Additionally, where current data and information applicable to New Zealand was used to support explanations, requirements of the standard were met. Students did not achieve the standard if explanations were not supported with qualitative and quantitative data.

91467: Implement an action plan to address a nutritional issue affecting the well-being of New Zealand society

Implementing an action plan requires students to plan and engage in food and nutrition health promotion to help address a nutritional issue for a group affected by an identified issue. Additionally, students are required to reflect on the effectiveness of the plan, the action taken and the outcomes that result from taking action.

Evidence that met the requirements of the standard included:

  • A clear understanding of the purpose of the health promotion. For example, a clear, measurable goal had been formulated that helped address the issue and improve long-term well-being for the group affected.
  • A detailed plan of action that included the strategies/actions to be taken to help address the issue. For example, a project timeline and weekly plans presented in a diary.
  • Clear evidence of student participation in the implementation of the plan. For example, detailed student reflections of interactions with the affected group.
  • Critical reflection about the implementation and effectiveness of the plan, and the outcomes of the strategies/actions. For example, reflections on barriers and enablers encountered, refinements to the plan and the effectiveness of the strategies/actions in enhancing well-being.

When a health promotion structure such as the Action Competence Learning Process (ACLP) or a similar inquiry-based model was used to focus and direct strategies/actions to achieve the stated outcomes, students were more likely to achieve the standard.

Where obesity was chosen as the nutritional issue to address, despite planning and implementing a health promotion, students were unable to determine how the strategies/actions they took helped to address obesity and enhance long-term well-being for the group. This situation could be avoided by ensuring the focus of the issue and health promotion is a not a complex medical issue. To allow for critical reflection, a health-related situation should be selected that enables a measurable goal to be set and action taken.

91468: Analyse a food related ethical dilemma for New Zealand society

An analysis of a food related ethical dilemma requires the nature of the dilemma to be explained. This involves explaining what the very essence of the dilemma is, what the food issue behind the dilemma is, reasons for the dilemma, how we know it is a dilemma and which groups in society are most affected.

To achieve the standard, the effect of the dilemma on society should be analysed and supported by examples and evidence. In addition, explaining the nature of the dilemma and contrasting viewpoints of individuals and/or groups with a vested interest in the dilemma is required.

Evidence that met the requirements of the standard provided a clear explanation of the essence of the dilemma that showed why it was a dilemma for New Zealand society. Students who began their analysis with this information were better able to focus their discussion on the analysis of the contrasting viewpoints. For example, in relation to intensive food production, the essence of the dilemma is farmers rights to use intensive food production methods versus consumers rights to have access to safe and nutritious food. This was clearly articulated, and the discussion that followed focused on explaining the viewpoints of the two groups as they related to the issue of food safety.

While background information about the food issue is required to explain the dilemma, the standard is assessing understanding of an ethical food-related dilemma, rather than the investigation of a food issue.

Ethical dilemmas related to the intensive farming of animals must be food related. While the rights of animals may be one of the underlying values associated with a viewpoint, explanations of the contrasting viewpoints must show understanding of the rights of one group of people balanced with the rights of another group when considering food choices in New Zealand.

Choosing intensive food production as the context for the assessment sometimes leads to students not achieving the standard. This was because the focus of the analysis could too easily become about the advantages and disadvantages of intensive farming, and not an analysis of the dilemma and the contrasting viewpoints.

91469: Investigate the influence of multinational food corporations on eating patterns in New Zealand

This standard requires students to explain how the practices of a multinational food corporation have changed consumers’ expectations and behaviours in relation to the sourcing of food, and the effects this has had on current food choices and eating patterns in New Zealand.

Evidence that met the requirements of the standard showed clear links between the development of the practices and significant changes in eating patterns in New Zealand. For example, in relation to advertising practices used by fast-food corporations, exposure to advertising was clearly linked to changes in consumers' attitudes and expectations about meals prepared at home. Detailed examples and evidence were provided that supported the explanation of the advertising practices, and showed how consumer decision making around preparing meals at home has been negatively influenced.

Contexts selected for assessment should provide students with the opportunity to access a range of credible evidence to support the explanation of the practices, some of which should be less than five years old. Sources could include school/year level surveys, interviews, statistics, research reports, newspaper and other print articles, documentaries, government and Ministry websites and recognised non-government organisations (NGOs).

Students who did not make clear links between the practices of food corporations and changes in consumers’ expectations and behaviour when sourcing food, and/or did not provide evidence to support their analysis, did not achieve the standard.  

Assessor Support


NZQA’s learning management system (Pūtake) offers 150+ easy to access courses, materials and products. These are designed to support teachers as assessors to improve their assessment of NCEA standards.

Online, subject-specific, bite-sized learning modules and short courses are now available to complement the traditional face-to-face workshops that NZQA offers. These online courses can be accessed using your Education Sector Logon. Courses available for Home Economics include:

  • Bite-sized module – 91466: Investigate a nutritional issue affecting the well-being of New Zealand society
  • Short course – 91468: Analyse a food related ethical dilemma for New Zealand society

Online Making Assessor Judgements workshops are also available throughout the year. These workshops are structured to guide teachers to improve their understanding of each grade level by examining several full samples of student work. The following standards are available for enrolment in 2023:

  • 91299: Analyse issues related to the provision of food for people with specific food needs
  • 91466: Investigate a nutritional issue affecting the well-being of New Zealand society
  • 91468: Analyse a food related ethical dilemma for New Zealand society

Feedback from teachers for these workshops indicates that more than 90% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the content in the module was beneficial:

“This would be a really good department exercise to do in a meeting before marking the standard.”

“I found reading and analysing the extracts for evidence against level 8 in the curriculum very useful.”

In 2023, Home Economics teacher-assessors will have the opportunity to participate in the Phase Two pilot for the Assessor Practice Tool, which enables assessors to practice making judgements on up to ten samples of student evidence per standard. Once assessors have assigned a grade, they will receive immediate feedback from a moderation panel on their judgement. NZQA are piloting the Assessor Practice Tool with the following standards for Home Economics.

  • 91301: Analyse beliefs, attitudes and practices related to a nutritional issue for families in New Zealand
  • 91468: Analyse a food related ethical dilemma for New Zealand society

The Assessor Practice Tool will be used to provide assessors with support for the new NCEA standards from 2024 onwards. Schools will receive further information about Phase Two of the Assessor Practice Tool in early 2023.

NZQA will continue to offer several non-subject-specific modules and workshops, designed to improve general assessment practice. The following modules and workshops will be available in 2023:

  • Assessment Approaches, an online workshop exploring different methods of assessment
  • Culturally Responsive Assessment
  • Assessment Guidance – Reviewing Your Practice
  • Tāku reo, tāku mahi – My voice, my work, a guide to managing authenticity
  • Why Less is More, a guide to reducing volumes of student evidence

We will also continue to run the Transforming Assessment Praxis programme, an online workshop relevant to all subjects which helps assessors learn about re-contextualising assessment resources and collecting evidence in different ways, in order to better meet the needs of students.

Check the NCEA subject pages on the NZQA website regularly, as more online modules, workshops and courses will be added throughout 2023.

Live and Face-to-face

The Best Practice Workshops (online and face-to-face) offered by Assessment and Moderation continue to be viewed by the sector as significantly contributing to improved assessor practice:

“The workshop helped to review my own knowledge, and great to share ideas."

“It was great having time to challenge my thinking in assessment."

Workshops, webinars or presentation slots can be requested to provide targeted support to local, regional or national audiences. National Moderators are available to present at conferences, local or national hui or via live webinars. These services are available on request and subject to availability.

Written Materials

Updated clarification documents have been produced for 91466.

Contact NZQA

More detailed information, including how to request or register for a workshop or online course, can be found on our Assessor Support pages or by emailing

To give feedback on this report click on this link.

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